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Marshall on Geology in connection with Anthropology. Ixxxv 

speakers, said that the Gallinas use combs for their hair ; they use 
combs with fine teeth, which are about the length of a man's finger. 
With regard to their reverence for animals, he said that one tribe 
did not eat goats, and that others reverence alligators. He men- 
tioned the fact, that an old man had an alligator that was quite tame, 
and fed out of his hand. With regard to the Poorah, it was an in- 
stitution somewhat similar to freemasonry, and those who were 
initiated into it, understood one another by signs not known to the 
rest of the tribe. It was originated, he believed, for the purpose of 
making laws, all of which were settled in the bush. As to the skulls, 
one was that of a Vey ; his father was a native of Kissy, situated 
about 200 miles in the interior, and his mother was the descendant 
of a white man. He (Mr. Harris) knew him well. He was a man of 
great bravery. He was killed in a skirmish, and fought with so 
much valour that he received four cuts before he was killed. The 
Goorah skull was that of the king of the Goorah people, whose country 
is about sixty miles from the coast ; they are civilised, and carry on 
many manufactures. The other skull, whatever might be its charac- 
teristic developments, was that of an intelligent man who had a very 
good temper. The Krus are considered to be the most intelligent of 
the negro tribes. 

The following paper was then read ; — 

Remarks on Genealogy in connexion toith Anthropology. By George 
W. Marshall, LLM., F.A.S.L. 

(This paper will appear at length in the Memoirs.) 
This paper was professedly suggestive of the value of the study of 
genealogy to anthropological science. In discussing the means which 
a knowledge of genealogy affords us of becoming better acquainted 
with the history of mankind, and with the origin of different nations, 
Mr. Marshall observes, that the study of genealogy is a j>assion in- 
herent in the whole human race, whether living in a barbarous or 
civilised state, and accounts for this taste by mentioning those na- 
tural causes which in the first stages of civilisation place one man 
above his fellows. The value of genealogy, as tending to elucidate 
the physical formation of man, as well as his mental capacity, is in- 
stanced in reference to consanguineous marriages, family resem- 
blances, hereditary diseases, and such like. The same characteristics 
are observable in animals as in man. The chief difficulty in the way 
of the anthropologist who would use genealogy as a means of study- 
ing man accurately, is that of certainly ascertaining pedigrees for any 
length of time ; this defect is now being remedied, at least for future 
generations, by a more extended system of national registration. 

The paper concludes by defining genealogy, as connected with 
anthropology, as "the science of investigating the causes which 
lead to the intellectual and physical development of man, or contri- 
bute to his decline, so far as he is influenced by the condition of his 
progenitors." Hitherto genealogy has not been scientifically studied ; 
ere long we hope to see it receive that share of attention from sci- 

lxxxvi Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

entific men which, if Mr. Marshall's suggestions be of any value at 
all, it appears to merit. 

The Pbesident, in proposing the thanks of the Society to Mr. 
Marshall, said they were particularly indebted to him for introducing 
that subject to their notice. They had that night heard two excel- 
lent papers, by Fellows of the Society, who had contributed for the 
first time, and he trusted they would be the forerunners of many 
others from them. The course of investigation suggested in the 
second paper had not hitherto received the attention to which it was 
entitled, and they should be bound in future to give it their best 
consideration. With regard to the number of ancestors which it was 
asserted a man might have, he considered the calculations about the 
per centage of blood a mistaken notion. It was not a question of 
mixture of blood in arithmetical proportions, but it was a physiolo- 
gical question entirely, as to the increase or propagation of race. The 
effect of intermarriage of relations was also a question of physio- 
logy. He regarded the collection of national portraits as most inte- 
resting in an anthropological point of view, as it would afford the 
opportunity of comparing the features of those who had distinguished 
themselves in times past with those of the present day. Historical 
anthropology was an interesting branch of the science of man, and he 
hoped the suggestive paper read by Mr. Marshall would stimulate 
further inquiry, and be the means of collecting facts that would 
throw more light on the subject. 

Dr. Beigel observed that genealogy, in the sense denned by the 
author of the paper, was in reality anthropology. What had hitherto 
been considered genealogy was nothing more than the determination 
of what man was the ancestor of another ; what relation, in short, 
Tom was to Harry. But when they proceeded to consider what the 
physical condition of Tom was, that subject of inquiry became an- 
thropology. In one sense, indeed, the science of anthropology might 
be considered to embrace all sciences, and according to the definition 
of genealogy given by the author of the paper, it would certainly be 
comprised in the science of man. It was said to have been proved 
that there is not an innate superiority in one man over another, and 
the interest of genealogy arises from the knowledge gained by it of 
the influences that make one man superior to another. If the author 
inquired of the gentleman near him (the Eev. Dunbar Heath) who 
was his ancestor, that gentleman would tell him that his ancestor 
was a monkey; it became an interesting point to be ascertained, there- 
fore, what changes had occurred and what influences had been exer- 
cised, to make a monkey so eloquent a speaker as Mr. Heath. He 
thought that there was something innate in all races, but that there 
must be special circumstances to raise one man into a higher state of 
knowledge than another. 

Eev. I. Dunbae Heath said, that having been referred to as the 
descendant of the most ancient classes, the quadrumana, he felt bound 
to make some remarks on the question. He could not quite agree 
with Di\ Beigel in his definition of genealogy. In considering the 
question, they should view the influence of lineal descent, as well as 

Marshall on Geology in connection toith Anthropology, lxxxvii 

other influences distinct from it. He did not agree with the President 
in the opinion that by regarding the subject physiologically, they 
were jtrevented paying any attention to it arithmetically, as denoting 
the degrees of relationship ; he thought that the two methods of 
looking at it might be properly combined. There are external influ- 
ences which commence with the quickening of the embryo in the 
mother's womb, and there is something else which influences the 
character. The external life of the mother, independent of the father, 
had no doubt great influence, but was there not something more than 
that 1 Was there not something in the race 1 In the formation of 
character, the race and the external circumstances should be both 
considered. Genealogy would afford help in making the investiga- 
tion, and in that manner genealogists would work for them as anthro- 

Mr. Mackenzie said he differed from Dr, Beigel in considering gene- 
alogy the same as anthropology, for he thought there was the same 
difference between them as there is between topography and geo- 
graphy. It was carrying out in individual characters the investigations 
which ethnologists applied to races, and anthropologists pursued in 
respect to man as an organised being. It was known, for example, 
that certain parasites were generated in certain families, and it was 
important to trace such peculiarities to their source. It was a fact 
that that peculiarity exists, and among some families high in the scale 
of social life, and to a degree to make it very unpleasant. Genealogy 
might assist anthropology in the inquiry to what source that pecu- 
liarity is to be traced, and by that means they might remove from 
some aristocratical families the disgrace of having originated such 

Mr. C. Carter Blake observed that the paper referred to several 
topics of great interest. Among others, it referred to the results of 
consanguineous marriages, which subject had been often considered 
by the Anthropological Society of Paris, and some papers bearing in- 
directly on the subject had been read and well discussed in the An- 
thropological Society of London. He regretted that so few facts had 
been brought forward by the author of this paper as to the results of 
consanguineous marriages, and he should be glad to have some such 
facts adduced on a future occasion. In the observations that had been 
made on the paper, he was surprised to hear Mr. Mackenzie repeat an 
anecdote that had no foundation, relating to the Percy family, who were 
said to be infected with the parasite Pecliculus hominis. He believed that 
absurd legend rested on an equally absurd slander in the play of the 
Merry Wives of Windsor ; and that the whole affair was utterly ridicu- 
lous, and unworthy to be noticed at a meeting of the Anthropological 
Society. They were in want of facts also on the subject of human 
hybridity, which it was very desirable should be obtained. In Paris 
a great number of facts bearing on those subjects had been collected, 
also at Moscow and in southern Eussia ; and the inquiries that had 
been instituted, he hoped, would be carried out in detail, and that 
the results would be communicated to the Anthropological Society of 

Ixxxviii Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

Mr. Goldsmid said they could scarcely expect many facts to bo 
stated in a paper that was merely suggestive ; and he thought that the 
objections urged by Dr. Beigel — that immediately they went beyond 
the strict limits of the subject of genealogy, they entered into a larger 
and inconsistent field of inquiry — would apply to almost everything. 
No science was so much mixed up with the general nature of man 
as anthropology, therefore it must be almost necessarily connected 
directly or indirectly with physiology and other natural sciences. 
The study of genealogy, he considered valuable to the anthropologist, 
as it tended to show what influences that affect man's nature may 
be said to depend on external circumstances, and what are innate 
properties. One fact deserving of notice, as shewing this, he would 
mention, the thickness of the lip of the members of the House of 
Hapsburg. They had all of them been subject to the same social influ- 
ences, and that peculiarity was observable in almost every branch of 
the family. Another instance was that of a gentleman belonging to a 
great aristocratic family, who had one white lock of hair, though his hair 
was generally dark, which peculiarity had been transmitted to him 
from a distant ancestor. He mentioned these cases to show that the 
author of the paper had opened a field of inquiry to anthropologists, 
from which many extraordinary facts bearing on the study of man 
might be elicited. 

Mr. Pritchard stated that among the natives of the Pacific he had 
met with individuals who had a white lock amongst the surrounding 
dark hair, which was said to be hereditary. With respect to the 
question of consanguinity, he stated that there are many of the small 
or atoll islands in the Pacific where the natives trace back their origin 
through three or four hundred years to the few persons who, drifting 
from their homes, originally landed there. The descendants of these 
persons intermarried, and all the inhabitants were related to one 
another • yet, speaking generally, there were no signs of madness or 
of any other serious mental affection among them. 

Mr. Mackenzie denied that he had made any special allusion 
to the Percy family when speaking of parasites. He believed that 
such diseases prevailed in a great many other families, but not in that 
one alone. 

Mi*. Marshall, in replying to the observations on his paper, said he 
meant it to be suggestive merely, and therefore he had not thought 
it necessary to mention more facts. He thought Dr. Beigel had rather 
misunderstood his meaning in his definition of genealogy, which, in 
an extended view, includes every kind of historical study. With re- 
gard to the facts adduced by Mr. Mackenzie, of physical peculiarities 
running in families, he had no doubt that many such instances as 
mentioned exist, but insanity and scrofula, which are also transmitted 
in families, were much more important subjects for consideration. 
Many such examples might be adduced, and a very remarkable one 
in a family even higher than that of Percy. Hereditary personal 
resemblances were well known to exist ; and in addition to the instance 
of the Bourbon chin, alluded to by Mr. Bollaert, he might mention 
the strong resemblance of the Prince of Wales to the face of George 

Special Ordinary Meeting. Ixxxix 

III, as stamped on the coins of his reign. The family histories and 
portraits of many English families afford numerous examples of the 
same kind. He remarked, in conclusion, that the great families in 
this country claim to be descendants from many sources, but that 
there are only one or two who claim to be descended from the 

The President announced that the Council had decided to hold an 
extra meeting, at which Captain Bedford Pim would read a paper on 
the causes of the Negro insurrection in Jamaica. In consequence of 
its having become known that Captain Pim was about to deliver an 
address on that subject, there had been a great demand for admissions, 
and it would be requisite, therefore, to hold the meeting in a larger 

The meeting then adjourned. 

February 1st, 1866. 
James Hitnt, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.U.S.L., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following list of members elected since the last ordinary meeting 
was read: — E. Charlesworth, Esq., E.G. S., Whittington Club, E.C. ; I. E. 
B. Cox, Esq., Middle Temple, E.C; James Gowans, Esq., 16, Salis- 
bury Street, Edinburgh; David Lloyd, Esq., 26, Birchin Lane, E.C. ; 
Nidda Genthe, Esq., LL.D., 8, Bedford Place, W.C.; Monsiem- E. G. 
M§ry, Gaboon, West Africa ; H. Mills, Esq., Arlington Place, Brough- 
ton Lane, Manchester ; John Bobbins, Esq., 372, Oxford Street ; T. 
Valentine Kobins, Esq., Sidney Cottage, Halebank, Ditton, Liverpool ; 
John Taylor, Esq., 316, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

The following Local Secretaries were elected : — B. B. N. Walker, 
Esq., F.A.S.L., Gaboon, West Africa; Irwin E. B. Cox, Esq., B.A., 

A paper was read by Commander Bedford C. Pim, B.N., E.A.S.L., 
entitled " The Negro at Home and Abroad." 

In the discussion on the above paper the following gentlemen took 
part : — Messrs. Aria, Semper, Winwood Beade, Hibbert, Liggins, 
Hams, and Seemann. 

[A full report of the proceedings of this meeting will be found in a 
special number of the Popular Magazine of Anthropology. — Ed.